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Date:         Fri, 16 Sep 2005 18:01:26 -0400
Reply-To:     Richard Ristow <>
Sender:       "SPSSX(r) Discussion" <SPSSX-L@LISTSERV.UGA.EDU>
From:         Richard Ristow <>
Subject:      Suggestion: Group-contiguous vectors
Comments: To: SPSS suggestion line <>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed

As we all know, the elements of a vector must be contiguous in the file. (And I'll skip saying anything about SAS arrays, whose elements can be completely arbitrary sets of variables.)

I expect that SPSS vectors work the way they do because implementation is simpler. A SAS array probably takes a full array of pointers, one pointing to each of the variables. An SPSS vector probably takes two numbers: the location within the data record of the first element, and the number of elements. Plus the element length, in case the vector elements are strings longer than 8 characters. (So you shouldn't be able to have a vector of strings of different lengths; and sure enough, you can't. From the syntax manual: "A single vector must comprise all numeric variables or all string variables. The string variables must have the same length.")

But here's something almost as simple, that would be very useful: what I'll call "group-contiguous" vectors.

A common instance is for a record to contain a repeating sequence, each member the same length, of groups of logically related variables. The members of a group may well be of different types, but corresponding members of different groups will be of the same type. Like this:

DISPLAY VARIABLES. List of variables on the working file

Name Pos Level Print Fmt Write Fmt Missing Values

SUBJECT 1 Scale N3 N3 ALPH2001 2 Scale F3 F3 BETA2001 3 Scale F3 F3 GAMM2001 4 Scale F3 F3 ALPH2002 5 Scale F3 F3 BETA2002 6 Scale F3 F3 GAMM2002 7 Scale F3 F3 ALPH2003 8 Scale F3 F3 BETA2003 9 Scale F3 F3 GAMM2003 10 Scale F3 F3 SPACER 11 Nominal A39 A39

(In some systems, the triplet alpha-beta-gamma would be called a "user-defined data type.)

So here's a suggested extension to VECTOR:


Then ALPHA, BETA, and GAMMA are interleaved vectors, like this:

Name Vector element

ALPH2001 ALPHA(1) BETA2001 BETA(1) GAMM2001 GAMMA(1) ALPH2002 ALPHA(2) BETA2002 BETA(2) GAMM2002 GAMMA(2) ALPH2003 ALPHA(3) BETA2003 BETA(3) GAMM2003 GAMMA(3)

All elements of ALPHA, of BETA and of GAMMA would have to be the same type and length; but ALPHA, BETA and GAMMA elements would not.

This should be almost as simple to implement: the vectors ALPHA, BETA and GAMMA could still be represented internally as a starting point, a number of elements, and the distance (in 8-byte units) between consecutive elements.

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